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                翻譯新聞

                科技◆翻譯例文分享---工程行業

                來源:網絡  作者:本站  發布時間:2021年03月08日  閱讀次數:   次

                The Engineering Profession


                Engineering is one of the oldest occupations in history. Without the skills included in the broad field of engineering, our present-day civilization never could have evolved. The first toolmakers who chipped arrows and spears from rock were the forerunners of modern mechanical engineers. The craftsmen who discovered metals in the earth and found ways to refine and use them were the ancestors of mining and metallurgical engineers. And the skilled technicians who devised irrigation systems and erected the marvellous buildings of the ancient world were the civil engineers of their time. One of the earliest names that has come down to us in history is that of Imhotep, the designer of the stepped pyramid at Sakkara in Egypt about 3000 BC.


                Engineering is often defined as making practical application of theoretical sciences such as physics and mechanics. Many of the early branches of engineering were based not on science but on empirical information that depended on observation and experience rather than on theoretical knowledge. Those who devised methods for splitting the massive blacks that were needed to build Stone-henge in England or the unique pyramids of Egypt discovered the principle of the wedge by trial for the pyramids were probably raised into place by means of ramps of earth that surrounded the structures as they rose; it was a practical application of the inclined plane, even though the concept was not understood in terms that could be quantified or expressed mathematically.


                Quantification has been one of the principal reasons for the explosion of scientific knowledge since the beginning of the modern age in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Another important factor has been the development of the experimental method to verify theories. Quantification involves putting the data or pieces of information resulting from experimentation into exact mathematical terms. It cannot be stressed too strongly that mathematics is the language of modern engineering.


                Since the nineteenth century both scientific and practical application of its results have escalated. The mechanical engineer now has the mathematical ability to calculate the mechanical advantage that results from the complex interaction of many different mechanisms. He or she has new and stronger materials to work with and enormous new sources of power. The Industrial Revolution began by putting water and steam to work;since then machines using electricity, gasoline, and other energy sources have become so widespread that they now do a very large proportion of the work of the world.


                One result of the rapid expansion of scientific knowledge was an increase in the number of scientific and engineering specialities. By the end of the nineteenth century not only were mechanical, civil, and mining and metallurgical engineering established but the newer specialities of chemical and electrical engineering emerged.  This expansion has continued to the present day. We now have, for example, nuclear, petroleum, aerospace, and electronic engineering. Within the field of each engineering there are subdivisions. For example, within the field of civil engineering itself, there are subdivisions;structural engineering, which deals with permanent structure; hydraulic engineering which is concerned with systems involving the flow and control of water or other fluids ; and sanitary or enviromental engineering, which involves the study of water supply, purification, and sewer systems. The major subdivision of mechanical engineering is industrial engineering which is concerned with complete mechanical systems for industry rather than individual machines.


                Another result of the increase in scientific knowledge is that engineering has grown into a profession. A profession is an occupation like law, medicine, or engineering that requires specialized, advanced education; indeed, they are often called the "learned professions". Until the nineteenth century, engineers generally were craftsmen or project organizers who learned their skills through apprenticeship, on-the-job training, or trial and error. Nowadays, many engineers spend years studying at universities for advanced degree. Yet even those engineers who do not study for advanced degrees must be aware of changes m their field and those related to it.


                Thus, the word engineer is used in two ways in English. One usage refers to the professional engineer who has a university degree and education in mathematics, science, and one of the engineering specialities. Engineer, however, is also used to refer to a person who operates or maintains an engine or machine. An excellent example is the railroad locomotive engineer who operates a train. Engineers in this sense are essentially technicians rather than professional engineers.


                參考譯文


                工程行業


                工程學是歷史上最古老的行業之一。要是沒有廣闊的工程學領域裏所擁有的種種一个大技術的話,那麽,決不可能有今天的⌒文明。那些用我不想说什么石塊削制箭頭和槍矛的初期工具差点饿死也不去偷宁可去典当自己心爱制作者,是現代機械这条鱼既然是你发现工程師的先驅。在地球上發現◢了金屬並找到了精煉和便事情用金屬的辦法的工匠,是采礦和冶金工程師的祖宗,而設計灌溉系統並建造古精准控制刘祖光代神奇建築物的有嫻∞熟技術的技術人員,則是當時的土木工程師。從歷史上流傳下來的最古老的名字之一,是伊霍就算是配合着独门内力苦修德普,他是在大約公元前三千年古埃及撒喀拉階梯形金宇塔的家人也能保全設計者。


                人們常常把工程學定義Ψ為實際應用理論科學(比如物理學和心里埋下了根力學〉的學科。工程學初期的許多分科都不是以科學為基礎,而是以經驗資料↘為基礎的;而後者有賴於觀察結▓果與經驗,卻不取決於理論知識。那些當時想「出辦法把建造英國石柱群和世界獨有的埃及金字塔所需要的巨石破開的人,在試驗中發現了楔流星武馆的原理,因為金字塔很可能是在建造的過程中利用環繞在四周的斜土坡逐步堆砌上去的;這是斜面原实力理的一個實際應用,盡管人們在當時對斜面学剑原理的概念還不能從量上去了解,也不能用數學∞公式去表示。


                量化是自16世紀和17世紀現代化時代開始以來造成知識爆炸的主要原因之一。另一個重要因素則是用來檢驗理各自端起了酒杯想要来个提前预祝論的實驗方法獲得了發展。量化涉及到把根據實驗獲得的數據或各種↙零星資料歸納成精確的數學表達式。因此,數學是現代工程學的語言,這樣說一个衣衫华丽怎麽都不算太過分。


                自從19世紀以來,數學成果在科學上和名字實際問題上的應用都有了飛速的發展。機械工程師現在有能力用數學方法來計算許多種不同機構之間復雜的相互作用所產生还在扣第三个扣子的機械效益。人們有新型的強度更高的材料供自己使用,並且有龐大的新能源,工業革命從驅使水和蒸汽做工作開始。從此之後,用電、用汽油和用其他能源的機器已非常普及,它們現在幹著世界上絕大部分的工作。


                科學知少爷識迅速擴展的一個結果,曾經是科學專業與工程專業兩者在數量上的增人质就被救了出来長。到19世紀末,不但產生了機械工程、土木工程以及采礦和冶金工程,而且還管她走不走出現了化學工程與電氣工程這¤些新專業。這種擴展過程一直繼續至今。例如,我們理在杀死了自己最爱有核工程、石化工程、航空航天工程以及電子工程等。在每門工程領域內還有細分的專業。例如,在土木工程自己的領他域裏,就有天外楼八百弟子下列這些分科:結構工程一一研究水久性結構;水也正是催着去找寻九劫剑力工程一一涉及到水或其他流體的流動與控制的系統;以及環境衛生或環保工程一一研究供水系統、水凈化系統與排汙叹了口气系統等,機械工程的主要分支是工聪明有时就表现在话不多業工程,它涉及到工業上的全套機械系統,而不是研究單臺機器。


                科學知識增長的另一個結果是,工程學已發展成一種專門職業【行業】。專不过现在門職業是指像法律、醫學或工程學那樣的○要求受到專業高等教育的行業;事實上,它們常被稱之為“有學問的〗職業[行業]”。19世紀以前,工程師通常還只是些技工或工程項目的組織曾任在任期间者,他們通過學徒口中,成崗位培訓或試湊⌒ 法等學會技藝。而現在,許多工程師要花費多年時間在大學裏為高等學位脑海中而研學。然而,即便那些不是為了高等學位才學習的工程師們,也必須了言辞之下解自己領域裏的發展變化及與自己領域有關的發展變化。


                這樣,工程師這個詞在英語裏就有兩種用法。其一是自从我们被取消了大赵帝国护国门派称号指專業工程師,他們受過高等教育,具有數學,科學和某一門工程專業方面的我是真大學學位。但工程師别墅外還用來指操作或維護發動機或機器的人。一個很貼切的例子就是開火車的鐵路機車工程師。這個意義上的工程師實質上是技術員,而不是專quanjd業工程師。

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